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Referees and Umpires- England v Scotland

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Deerstalkers were popular with referees.

When the Football Association’s Laws of the Game were drawn up in 1863 there was no mention to referees, umpires or any arbiters. However, by the 1870s it was common for association matches to be overseen by two umpires and a referee. This practice is traditionally ascribed to the advent of competitive football with the introduction of the FA Cup in 1871. Of course most football was still played by the class of men who would never knowingly seek to gain unfair advantage or deliberately transgress.
In the Alcock Internationals we see the casual approach to officialdom in keeping with the 'scratch' nature of the matches, the personnel being:
Match 1-No mention  made of Umpires and Referees, the assumption being that disputes were settled by the captains.
Match 2-Umpires - Morton Peto Betts (England) and Alexander Morten (Scotland)
Match 3-Umpires - Robert Barker (Hertfordshire Rangers, England) and William Wallace. (Wanderers, for Scotland) Referee - Charles Mansfield Tebbut (Wanderers).
Match  4- Umpires - Alfred Stair (Upton Park, England) and Gilbert Kennedy (Wanderers, for Scotland).
Match 5-Only one Umpire known - Alexander Morten  (taken from Andy Mitchell's First Elevens).

  In practice each side would nominate an Umpire to whom the captains could appeal regarding any situation that arose during play. This situation was usually adequate, although the Umpires were later described in the press as 12th men on each side who could harass the Referee with pleas and arguments.
One Umpire operated in each half of the field (or more accurately each side of the field- for this purpose the field was divided lengthwise). The Referee could operate from the sidelines, but was often to be found on the field of play.

If we look at the officials involved in the England  vs Scotland internationals during the Umpire / Referee era we see a veritable Who's Who of Victorian football.  Prominent football administrators and international players past, present and future fulfilled the roles.



Referee
Umpires


England
Scotland
1872
William Keay (S)
(Hon. Treasurer- Queen's Park)

C.W. Alcock*
(Wanderers & Hon. Secretary FA)


H.N. Smith
(President - Queen's Park)


1873
Theodore Lloyd (E)
(Crystal Palace)

C.W. Alcock*
(Wanderers & Hon. Secretary FA)


Archibald Rae
(Queen's Park)


1874
Archibald Rae (S)
(Queen's Park)

 Alexander Morton*
(Crystal Palace)

William Keay
(Queen's Park)


1875
Alfred Stair (E)
(Upton Park)


Major Francis Marindin
(President - FA)

J.C. Mackay
(Hon. Sec.- SFA)

1876
William C Mitchell (S)
(Queen's Park)

J. Turner
(Swifts)


Robert Gardner*
(Clydesdale)

1877
Robert A.M.M Ogilvie (E)*
(Clapham Rovers)


Hubert Heron*
(Wanderers)

William Dick
(Hon. Sec.- SFA)


1878
William A Dick (S)
(Hon. Sec.- SFA)

G. Turner
(Edinburgh University)

R.B. Colquhon
(Vice-President- SFA)


1879
Charles Wollaston (E)*
(Wanderers)

A. F. Kinnaird*
(Treasurer- FA)

R.B. Colquhon
(Vice-President- SFA)


1880
Capt. Donald Hamilton (S)
(Vice-President- SFA)

W. Pierce-Dix
(Hon. Sec.- Sheffield FA)


J. Nicholson
(Vale of Leven)

1881
Major Francis Marindin (E)
(President-FA)


E.H. Bambridge*
(Swifts)

Capt. Donald Hamilton
(Vice-President- SFA)

1882
John Wallace (S)
(Vice-President- SFA)

Segar  Bastard*
(Upton Park)

Thomas Anderson
(Renfrew)


1883
John Sinclair (I)*
(Hon. Treasurer- Irish FA )

J.C. Clegg*
 (President -Sheffield FA)
Thomas  Lawrie
 (President- SFA)


1884
John Sinclair (I)*
(Hon. Treasurer- Irish FA )

Major Francis Marindin
(President-FA)

Thomas Lawrie
(Vice-President -SFA)


1885
John Sinclair (I)*
(Irish FA)

M.P. Betts*
(Old Harrovians)


J. E. McKillop
(Scottish FA)

1886
Alexander Hunter (W)*
(Secretary-Welsh FA)


N.L. Jackson
(Corinthians & Hon. Sec.- FA)

Alexander Stuart
(Vice-President- SFA)

1887
John Sinclair (I)*
(Irish FA)

R.P. Gregson
(Sec- Lancashire FA)


R. Browne
(Queen's Park FC)

1888
John Sinclair (I)*
(Irish FA)

M.P. Betts*
(Old Harrovians)

A Mc Kennedy
(President- SFA)


1889
John Sinclair (I)*
(Irish FA)

J.C. Clegg*
 (President -Sheffield FA)
J.A. Crerar
(Third Lanark FC & President -SFA)

1890
John Reid (I)*
(Irish FA)

R.P. Gregson
(Sec- Lancashire FA)


Charles Campbell*
(President- SFA)

1891
William J Morrow  (I)
(President- Irish FA)


S.W. Widdowson*
(Nottingham Forest)

T.R. Park
(SFA)


*denotes an international player.

The inauguration of the British Home Championship in 1883 saw the introduction of neutral referees.
The 1891-92 season saw the Umpires rendered obsolete- replaced by linesmen whose powers were relatively limited, the Referee, by now, having become at least in theory, omnipotent.


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