Channel: Before The 'D'...Association Football around the world, 1863-1937.
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Phenix was one of the earliest clubs in Turkey to feature Turkish born players. Although the earliest league in Istanbul was established in 1904, Turks were still prohibited from playing by the laws of the Ottoman Empire.
An illustration of how seriously this was taken can be seen in an incident from 1901.
A group of Turkish would be players founded a club, which they gave an English name- Black Stockings. Their first game was halted by the police and a number of players were arrested.

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